Native American Legal Resources Guide

The Connecticut State Library is privileged to have a rich and varied collection of resources on Native American Indians. The materials listed below should be viewed as a starting point for the researcher on this topic.

Primary Sources
The General Statutes of Connecticut detail the current laws pertaining to Native Americans in Connecticut. The statutes are indexed by subject for easy access. The Law and Legislative collection contains the text of all relevant Public Acts, Special Acts, Bills (in the permanent bill file), related legislative history, Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies, reported judicial decisions and a microform copy of the Indian Claims Commission.

Examples of subtitles under the heading "Native Americans" in the Statutes are:

Hunting on Reservations, CGS Section 47-65a
Indian Affairs Council-Annual Report, CGS Section 47-59b(b)
Land Rights, CGS Section 47-59a(a)
Tribal Funds, CGS Section 47-66

United States. Indian Claims Commission. Indian Claims Commission [microform] New York N.Y. Clearwater Pub. Co., 1973-1982. pt.A Indian Claims Commission; Decisions; Decisions on appeal-pt.B Testimony-pt.C Transcript-pt.D Briefs-pt.E-General Service Administration; General Accounting Office-pt.F Legislative history of the Indian Claims Commission Act of 1946; Docket books; Journal. [CSL call number KF8208 .A25 I53 1975 mfiche]

Secondary Sources
Secondary sources can be found in treatises on this subject. Most contain bibliographies and indexes valuable to the researcher.

Bledsoe, Samuel Thomas. Indian land laws; being a treatise of the law of acquiring title to, and alienation of, allotted Indian lands. Also a compilation of treaties, agreements and statutes applicable thereto,by S. T. Bledsoe. Kansas City, Mo., Pipes-Reed Company, 1909. [CSL call number KF5660 .B55 1909]

Burton, Lloyd. American Indian Water Rights and the Limits of Law. Lawrence, Kan.:University Press of Kansas, 1991. [CSL call number KF8210 .N37 B87 1991]

Clark, Blue. Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock: treaty rights and Indian law at the end of the nineteenth century. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994. [CSL call number KF228 .L66 1994]

Clinton, Robert N. American Indian law: cases and materials. Charlottesville, Va.: Michie Co., 1991. [CSL call number KF8204 .C55 1991]

Cohen, Felix S. Handbook of Federal Indian law: with reference tables and index. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1942. [CSL call number KF8205 .C6 1998]

Getches, David H. Cases and materials on Federal Indian law. St. Paul, Minn.: West Pub. Co., 1993. [CSL call number KF8204.5 .G47 1993]

Grossman, Mark. The ABC-CLIO companion to the Native American rights movement. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 1996. [CSL call number KF8203.36 .G76 1996]

Hall, Gilbert L. The Federal-Indian trust relationship: duty of protection: legal curriculum and training program of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law . Washington, D.C.: The Institute 1981. [CSL call number KF8205 .H35 1981]

Harring, Sidney L. Crow Dog's case: American Indian sovereignty, tribal law, and United States law in the nineteenth century. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. [CSL call number KF8205 .H37 1994]

Holt, H. Barry. Digest of American Indian law: cases and chronology. Littleton, CO: F.B. Rothman, 1990. [CSL call number KF8204.5 .H65 1990]

Indian Rights Association. The helplessness of the Indians before the law with an outline of proposed legislation. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association, 1886. [CSL call number KF8205 .I55 1886]

Kawashima, Yasuhide. Puritan justice and the Indian: white man's law in Massachusetts. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1986. [CSL call number KKM2905 .K39 1986]

Pommersheim, Frank. Braid of feathers: American Indian law and contemporary tribal life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. [CSL call number KF8205 .P6 1995]

Reeser, Ralph. Manual of Indian gaming law, annotated. Fairfax, VA: Falmouth Institute, 1992-1999. [CSL call number KF8210 .C7 .M36]

Shattuck, Petra T. Partial justice: Federal Indian law in a liberal constitutional system. New York: Berg, 1991. [CSL call number KF8205 .S47 1991]

Spaeth, Nicholas J. American Indian law deskbook. Niwot, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 1993. [CSL call number KF8205 .A76 1993]

Washburn, Wilcomb E. The assault on Indian tribalism: the General allotment law (Dawes Act) of 1887. Malabar, Fla.: R.E. Krieger Pub. Co, 1986. [CSL call number KF5660 .W38 1986]

Washburn, Wilcomb. E. Red man's land/white man's law: a study of the past and present status of the American Indian. New York: Scribner, 1971. [CSL call number KF8205 .W38]

Wilkinson, Charles F. American Indians, time, and the law: native societies in a modern constitutional democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987. [CSL call number KF8205 .W53 1987]

Wilkinson, Charles F. Indian tribes as sovereign governments: a sourcebook on federal-tribal history, law, and policy. Oakland, CA: AIRI Press, 1988. [CSL call number KF8205 .I53 1988]

Government Documents
Connecticut Indian Education Council, Inc. Indian Advisory Committee, under the auspices of Connecticut State Department of Education. Eastern Indians: an annotated bibliography with emphasis on indigenous tribes of Connecticut. Hartford: The Council, 1986. [CSL call number Conn Doc Ed83 eain]

Native American AIDS Advisory Board. AIDS is also an Indian problem. Sacramento, CA: Native American AIDS Advisory Board: California Rural Indian Health Board, Inc. 1988. [CSL call number Fed Doc HE 20.9402:Ac 7]

United States. Act to Make Certain Technical Corrections, and for Other Purposes (P.L. 103-435) Technical corrections to native American Indian laws. Washington, D.C. 1994. [CSL call number Fed Doc AE 2.110:103-435]

United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Indians: general reading list on Indian history, culture, problems and relationship to the Federal Government. Washington: Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs: for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1977. [CSL call number Fed Doc I 20.48:In2/2]

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Native American Programs. Building partnerships for better communities: success stories from Indian country. Washington D.C.: The Office, 1997. [CSL call number Fed Doc HH 1.2:P 25/5]

Law Review Articles
Atwood, Barbara Ann. "Identity and Assimilation: Changing Definitions of Tribal Power over Children." Minnesota Law Review April 1999 v.83 i.4 p.927-996 [CSL call number K13 .I55]

Goldin, Nicholas S. "Casting a New Light on Tribal Casino Gaming: Why Congress Should Curtail the Scope of High Stakes Indian Gaming." Cornell Law Review March 1999 v.84 i.3 p.798-854 [CSL call number K3 .O7]

Karr, Steven M. "Now have we forgotten the old Indian law: Choctaw culture and the evolution of corporal punishment." American Indian Law Review Spring 1999 v.23 i.2 p.409-423 [CSL call number K1 .M437]

Leedham III, Edward F. "The Indian gaming controversy in Connecticut: a balance between tribal sovereignty and state interests." Bridgeport Law Review Summer 1993 13 no.3 p.649-695 [CSL call number K25 .N412]

Platzman, Steven. "Objects of Controversy: The Native American Right to Repatriation." American University Law Review Winter 1992 41 no.2 p.517-558 [CSL call number K1 .M475]

Trainor, Daniel J. "Native American Mascots, Schools, and the Title VI Hostile Environment Analysis." University of Illinois Law Review Fall 1995 v.1995 no.4 p.971-1001 [CSL call number K25 .N63]

Yazzie, Robert. :""Watch your six": an Indian Nation judge's view of 25 years of Indian law, where we are and where we are going."" (Papers from the American Indian Law Review's 25th Anniversary Symposium) American Indian Law Review Spring 1999 v.23 no.2 p.497-503 [CSL call number K1 .M437]

Connecticut General Assembly Office of Legislative Research publications
The Law Unit maintains a collection of publications from the Connecticut General Assembly's Office Of Legislative Research, indexed by subject. See subject heading "Indians." Examples:

93-R-1245, Catawba Litigation
94-R-0170, Tribal Sovereignty
94-R-0028, Tribal-State Compacts
95-R-0990, State Criminal Jurisdiction on Mashantucket Pequot Reservation
98-R-5342, Foxwoods and Mohegan Casinos Liquor Control Agents

Vertical File
Relevant newspaper clippings, correspondence and copies of significant legislation are a sampling of the material found in this file. See subject heading "Indians", examples:

*California Department of Education. American Indian Education Handbook. Sacramento 1982.

*Congressional Quarterly's Editorial Research Reports. Is American allowing its past to be stolen? January 18, 1991.

*Hartford Courant September 3, 1992. "State faulted in management of Indian land"

*Hartford Courant December 12, 1994. "Pequots deal with criminal issues using tribe's own court system."

*Montana Legislative Council. Improving State-Tribal Relations: 1991-92 Activities of the Committee on Indian Affairs.Prepared by Connie F. Erickson November 1992.

*Nation News. A Report to the People of Connecticut From the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation.1997 vol. 2 no. 2

*NCSL LEGISBRIEF. State-Tribal Revenue Agreements. by Judy Zelio. June/July 1997 vol. 5 no. 29.

*Restaurant Business June 10, 1993. "Tribal Warfare: Indians want to clear the way for more casinos, but the states are fighting them hard. What's a fed to do?"

*Promoting Effective State-Tribal Relations: A Dialogue Proceedings of a Session Held in Tulsa, Oklahoma August 1989

*The Indian Claims Commission Series. Ethnographical Guide to the Indian Claims Commission.

Finding Tools/Technology
Resources can be retrieved through a variety of finding tools such as digests and indexes. There is expanded access to the contents of legal periodicals through CD and online products such as INFOTRAK. Internet access is also available in the Library and web sites on this subject can be used to aid the researcher. Examples:

Material Specific To The Mashantucket Pequot Tribe

Mashantucket Pequot Court of Appeals. Mashantucket Pequot reporter: opinions of the Mashantucket Pequot Court of Appeals. 1994. [CSL call number KF8228 .P53 A432}

Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Court. Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Court reports: containing decisions of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Court. 1992. [CSL call number KF8228 .P53 A43]

Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Court. Pequot court news. 1998:Sept.- [CSL call number KF8228 .P53 A433]

Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Council. Ordinance number ... of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Council, the governing body of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe. Ledyard, Conn.: The Council, 1994- Individual ordinances issued irregularly. [CSL call number KF8228 .P53 A45]

Mashantucket Pequot Tribe. Constitution and by-laws of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe: including amendments enacted during the November 1, 1991 annual meeting and the November 7, 1993 annual meeting. Mashantucket, Conn. Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Council, 1994. [CSL call number KF8228 .P53 A5 1994]

Mashantucket Pequot Tribe. Mashantucket Pequot rules of civil procedure. Mashantucket, Conn., 1997. [CSL call number KF8228 .P53 A5 1997]

Mashantucket Pequot Tribe. Mashantucket Pequot rules of evidence. Mashantucket, Conn., 1996. [CSL call number KF8228 .P53 A5 1996]

Mashantucket Pequot Tribe. Mashantucket Pequot tribal laws. Mashantucket, Conn., 1997. [CSL call number KF8228 .P53 A5 1997]

Material Specific To The Mohegan Tribe
Connecticut. Agreement. 1994 (Mohegan Indians) [CSL call number Conn Doc G747 moag ag]

Connecticut. Memorandum of understanding. 1994 (Mohegan Indians) [CSL call number Conn Doc G747 moag mu]

Connecticut. Office of the Attorney General. [Opinion of the Attorney General regarding the Governor's authority to bind the state to the Gaming Compact between the state of Connecticut and the Mohegan Tribe.] Hartford, CT: Office of the Attorney General, State of Connecticut 1994. [CSL call number Conn Doc At83 op mohe]

Connecticut. Mohegan Tribe, 1994 Apr. 25. Mohegan agreements. 1994. [CSL call number Conn Doc G747 moag]

Mohegan Tribe. Gaming Disputes Court. Gaming Disputes Court ordinances and rules / Gaming Disputes Court. Uncasville, Conn.: The Court 1996. [CSL call number KF8228 .M83 G36 1996]

Mohegan Tribe. Gaming Disputes Trial Court. Gaming disputes reports / Gaming Disputes Trial Court. Uncasville, Conn.: Gaming Disputes Court, 1998. [CSL call number KF8228 .M83 G261]

Ni ya yo. Uncasville, Ct: Mohegan Tribe "An official publication of the Mohegan Tribe" English version of title: Last word. [CSL call number E99 .M83 N5]

Compiled by Janis Lefkowitz, Law and Legislative Reference Unit, 2/2002; edited by D Pond, 12/2011